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Write in brief about Giuseppe Mazzini.
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary. He was born in 1807 in Genoa.
He became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. When he was 24 years old, he was sent to exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
After that he founded two more underground societies; first Young Italy (1831) in Marseilles and then Young Europe (1833) in Berne. The members of these societies were from Poland, France, Italy and German states.
Giuseppe Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So, Italy had to be forged into a single unified republic instead of being a patchwork of small state kingdoms. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty.
Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republic frightened the Conservatives. Metternich, a conservative, described him as “the most dangerous enemy of our social order.”
Write in brief about Count Camillo de Cavour.
Count Camillo de Cavour was the leading figure in the movement towards unification of Italy. He was the chief minister of Piedmont-Sardinia.
He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. He was like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite. He tried to end all the privileges of the clergy. He also introduced many reforms for the promotion of trade and commerce. He supported the adventures of Giuseppe Mazzini and Garibaldi. By his tactful diplomatic alliance with France, he defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. He also drove away the Spanish rulers from two sicilies in South Italy. He became the first prime minister of unified Italy.
Write in brief about The Greek war of independence.
Since the 15th century, a Muslim empire, named as Ottoman Empire had made Greek its territory. The Greeks struggled against it in 1821 and a nationalist movement began there. The Greek war mobilized the nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe. The nationalists in Greek got support from many west Europeans who sympathized with the ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists praised Greece as they considered it as the cradle of European civilization. They mobilized public opinion to support this struggle against the Muslim empire. Finally, the treaty of Constantinople was signed in 1832 between the Turks and the European powers, which recognized Greek as an independent nation.
Write in brief about Frankfurt Parliament.
In German regions, there were a large number of political associations whose members were middle class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans. They came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly.
On 18 May, 1848, 831 elected representatives took out a festive procession to take part in the Frankfurt parliament which was convened in the Church of St. Paul. They drafted a constitution for the German Nation. This German Nation was to be headed by the monarchy subject to a parliament. Friedrich Wilhelm IV, the king of Prussia was offered the crown on these terms, but he rejected the offer and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.
Ultimately, the monarchy and military combined together with aristocracy and defeated the nationalist middle class and the Assembly was forced to disband. Therefore, the Frankfurt parliament is famous in history as a failure of liberalism and victory of monarchy.
Write in brief about The role of women in nationalist struggles.
Women played a significant role in the nationalist struggle all over the world. They led the movements, faced the tortures of police, spread the ideas of liberal nationalism and also participated in the various revolutionary organizations. They equally participated with men in the movements of the French Revolution.
Women folk had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and took an active part in political meetings and demonstrations. While men were busy in outside wars, women handled all family issues. But in spite of their active participation in nationalist struggles, they were given little or no political rights. They had no ‘right to vote’ till the end of 19*h century.
What steps did the French Revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French People?
The French Revolutionaries took the following steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people:
- They introduced the ideas of Lapatrie (fatherland) and lecitoyen (citizen), emphasizing the concept of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
- They choose a new french flag, the tricolor, to replace the royal standard.
- The Estates General was replaced by the National Assembly whose members were elected by a body of active citizens.
- In the name of the nation, new hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs were commemorated.
- A centralized administrative system was established which formulated uniform laws for all citizens:
- A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted and internal custom duties were abolished to promote economic exchange.
- French language was spoken and written in place of regional dialects.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Marianne was the female allegory of French nation. It underlined the idea of unity of French nation. Its chief characteristics were the red cap, the tricolor and the cockade, which symbolize the idea of ‘Liberty’ and ‘Republic.
On the other hand, Germania was the female allegory of German nation. The Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism’. She also holds a sword in her hand. It is a personification of ‘Liberty’ and ‘Republic’ of German nation.
The statues of Marianne and Germania were erected in public squares. They were portrayed in such a way that they sought to give an abstract idea of the nation in a concrete form. These images also help to create a sense of nationality among the citizens of these two countries.
Briefly trace the process of German unification.
The liberal middle class of German confederacy met in the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848 with an objective of establishing Germany as a nation.
This liberal initiative to nation building was, however, repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military. Later on, the chief minister of Prussia, Ottovan Bismarck led the movement to unify the nation.
He organized the military wars and mobilized bureaucracy against the countries which had occupied the German states. He fought three wars for over seven years (1864-71) with Austria, Denmark and France. These wars ended in victory of Ottovan Bismarck and completed the process of German unification.
In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Napoleon Bonaparte was an enlightened despot. He desired an orderly government and a rational administration.
He no doubt destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field he incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more efficient.
The main changes which he introduced in the administrative system were briefly as under:
- He established Civil Code in 1804, also known as the Napoleonic Code. It did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured the right to property.
- He simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom.
- in towns, guild systems were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
- Nobles, middle classes and peasants became subjects of state, all equally liable to pay taxes.
- Standard weights and measures, a common national currency was another achievement of Napoleon.
- Uniform laws were given to all.
By introducing these changes, Napoleon made the whole administrative system really efficient.
Explain what is meant by the 1848 Revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
The 1848 Revolution of the liberals refers to the various national movements pioneered by educated middle classes alongside, the revolts of the poor, unemployed, starving peasants and workers in Europe.
In simple words, it was a revolt which was led by workers, peasants, unemployed youth and educated middle class. The liberals took advantage of the unrest prevailing in the society. They demanded the creation of nation state on parliamentary principles, freedom of press, freedom of association.
Political, social and economic ideas of liberals:
- The political, social and economic ideas supported by liberals were clearly based on democratic ideals. Politically, they demanded constitutionalism with national unification and parliamentary administration.
- Socially, the liberals supported the abolition of discrimination based on birth. They wanted to get rid of social based privileges.
- Economically, they wanted abolition of trade restrictions imposed by the state. Serfdom and forced labour had to be abolished and economic equality had to be pursued as a national goal.
Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.
- Role of art, poetry and stories: Art, poetry and stories helped a lot to express and shape nationalist feelings. Romanticism is a cultural movement that sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romanticist such as the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that it was through folk poetry that the true spirit of the nation was popularized.
- Role of music and dance: Other romanticists claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people through folk music and folk dance. The effort of these romanticists was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage and a common cultural past.
- Role of language: Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. Example, in Poland, language was used as a weapon of national resistance. The wide scale use of polish language comes to the seen as a symbol of struggle against national dominance.
Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century?
Let us through a focus on the development of German and Italian states in the 19th century by considering the following points:
- Political fragmentation: Till the middle of the 19th century, the present-day states of Germany and Italy were fragmented into separate regions and kingdoms ruled by different princely houses.
- Revolutionary uprisings: Nineteenth century Europe was characterized by both popular uprising of the masses and revolutions led by the educated liberal middle classes. In the case of the German people, the middle classes belonging to different regions came together to form an All-German National Assembly in 1848. However, on facing opposition from the aristocracy and military, it was forced to disband. In the Italian region, revolutionaries like Giuseppe Mazzini, tried to establish an Italian republic. However, the revolutionary uprising of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy.
- Unification: After the failure of the revolutions, the process of unification in Germany was completed by Prussian C.M Otto Van Bismarck with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Finally, the German Empire was proclaimed united in 1871. Count Camillo de Cavour led the movement to unite the separate states of 19th century Italy with the help of his army and by making an Alliance with France. In this way the process of unification of Germany and Italy was completed.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
In Britain, the formation of the nation state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of a long drawn out process, which is briefly explained as under:
- The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British isles were ethnic ones-English, Welsh, Scot and Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as a result of Industrialization, the English nation grew in power, importance and wealth. So, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
- The Act of Union (1707) between English and Scotland resulted in the formation of ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. After that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. Scotland’s distinctive culture and political constitutions were systematically suppressed.
- Then English helped Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country. Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed. In this way, Ireland was incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
- The symbols of the New Britain – the British flag, the national anthem, the English language were actively promoted and other nations survived only as subordinate partners in the Union.
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
The Balkan region comprised modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro and its inhabitants were broadly called ‘Slavs’.
With a large area of Balkan region under Ottoman Empire, the spread of the ideas of Romantic nationalism in the Balkans made the situation tense. Ottoman Empire had not been able to become strong even after reforms and modern methods after an effort of nearly 91 years.
Gradually, most of the European nationalities broke away from the Ottoman Empire’s control to declare themselves as independent. The rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long last independence. The internal rivalries, however, made the Balkan states jealous to each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the other.
Balkan’s situation became even more serious when some big powers started fighting for trade and colonies in these Balkans. Russia, Germany, England and Austria-Hungary were such powers who wanted to gain control of the Balkan region. These powers fought several wars for this purpose which finally led to the First World War.
FAQs on the rise of nationalism in Europe.
It was a Cultural movement.
They stressed the importance of tradition and established institutions and customs.
The chief Minister of Italy
The main objective of the treaty of Vienna was to undo the changes brought about in Europe during Napoleonic war.
Treaty of Constantinople
The Frankfurt assembly was convened the church of St Paul.
Liberalism stands for freedom and equality of all before the law.
Young Europe and Young Italy.
Prussia Britain, Russia and Austria.
It is a movement related to “The right to vote”.
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