In this section, you will get Prevention of Drug Abuse And Sexually Transmitted Diseases Notes pdf. These notes have been prepared by the subject experts who have a teaching experience of more than 10 years.
Prevention of Drug Abuse And Sexually Transmitted Diseases Questions & Answers
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Some Common Definitions
Adolescence: It is the period of rapid growth and mental development from ages 9 to 19 years
Fatigue: It is a subjective feeling of tiredness
Insomnia: It is a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling or staying asleep.
Depression: It is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a persons thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well being.
Neurotransmitters: Are the brains chemicals that communicate information through out the nervous system.
Infancy: The state or period by being an infant. The stage of infancy lasts from birth until approximately to age of 2 years.
Nausea: A feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit.
Elisa: Is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to the detect the presence of an antibody or antigen in a sample.
Virus: An infective agent consisting of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microcopy and can multiply only within living cells of a host.
What does the term addiction mean?
Addiction means compulsive physiological need for and use of habit farming substance (like heroin or nicotine) characterized by tolerance and well defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal.
A drug is a medicine or other substance which (when taken into a living body) affects its functioning or structure and is used in the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease of relief from discomfort.
What is substance abuse?
Substance abuse also known as drug abuse is a pattern of harmful use of a drug for mood altering purposes. In this pattern, the users consume the drug substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to them or others.
Write various problems suffered by adolescents?
Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood that implies many developmental changes and associated problems. Some of the problems faced by adolescents are:
- Perplexity with regard to somatic variation. Every adolescent has more or less difficult task of adjusting to somatic variation which may occur in connection with puberty. The menstruation in girls and nocturnal emission in boys creates worries and give birth to so many fears and anxieties. Lack of scientific information about sex hygiene and philosophy makes them to satisfy with crude and perverted knowledge about sex related problems.
- Problems related with intensification of sex-consciousness.
- Adjustment difficulties with parents.
- Childhood – adulthood conflict.
- Adjustment difficulties with school discipline.
- Adjustment difficulties with community.
- The ideal and reality conflicts.
- Development of acne, loneliness, phobia, chronic mental and physical fatigue, eating disorders and drug addition.
Write the characteristics of drug addiction?
The main characteristics of drug abuse are as follows:
- The substance is often taken in larger quantity or over a longer period than it is intended.
- There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful effort to cut down or control the use of substance.
- A lot of time is exhausted in activities necessary to obtain the substance, use the substance or recover from its effects.
- A strong desire or craving to use the substance.
- Recurrent use of the substance leads to inability to take responsibility at work, school or home.
- Continued use of the substance despite having adverse social or interpersonal problems caused by the effects of its use.
- Reduction or complete abstain from important social, occupational or recreational activities.
- Recurrent use of the substance even in physically hazardous situations.
- A desire for the increased amount of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
- The use of substance to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.
Adolescents are more prone to substance abuse? Justify the statement?
During adolescence many changes take place in the body and mind. There is spurt in the physical growth, maturation of reproductive organs and changes in the functioning of nervous and endocrine system of the body. Adolescents pass through emotional turbulence and confusion of mind. These changes are normal and are due to the release of certain hormones in the body.
Adolescents become more rational and egocentric. Moral reasoning develops at this time and they start questioning the authority. They become aggressive to get recognition from peers and elders.
They are not fully capable of understanding the relationship between behavior and consequences or the degree of control. They have or can have over health decision making issues. It makes them vulnerable to high risk behaviours such as drug addiction.
How do the drugs influence human brain?
Human brain is the most complex organ and regulates all the body functions. It is made of neurons that work in coordination to perform specific function.
Network of neurons pass messages back and forth among different structures of the body through chemicals known as neurotransmitters.
The activity and function of the brain can be modified by a wide range of chemicals and neurotransmitters in the system. The additive drugs alter the communication system of the brain by interfering with the way neurons normally send, receive and process information.
Some drugs such as heroin and marijuana have their chemical structure similar to neurotransmitter.
The similarity in structure enables the drugs to complete with the neurotransmitters at the receptors to attach and activate the neurons. Although these drugs mimic the neurotransmitters, they do not activate the neurons in the same way as natural neurotransmitters. Thus, they lead to abnormal messages being transmitted through the neurons.
Write a note on different types of drugs?
Any substance that create a euphoria (high feeling) in the users can be abused. These substance are known as psychoactive drugs.
The psychoactive drugs are addictive, induce dependence and have different effect on the human brain and body. These drugs may fall into the categories of stimulants, depressants, opiates and hallucinogens.
Stimulants are associated with the feeling of extreme well- being and high feeling e.g cocaine.
Depressants suppress brain activity causing relief from anxiety e,g, alcohol and cannabis.
Opiates are associated with pain relief, euphoria and sedation e.g, Heroin and opium.
Hallucinogens associated with the change in a person’s perception of reality e.g, cannabis and Lsb. Following some commonly abused drugs.
1, Alcohol: Alcohol are the organic compounds mostly available in liquid form. They are directly absorbed and require no digestion. The absorption of alcohol takes place in the stomach and copper part of the intestine and is directly transported to body cells, alcohol oxidizes to produce large amount of heat, intern raising body temperature. It acts as depressant, sedative and as an anesthetic. Drinking too much alcohol can cause nausea, dizziness, vomiting, impairments in judgment and reasoning, Liver, brain and heat diseases and in extreme cases causes cancer.
2, Tobacco: Tobacco is obtained by the fermentation of dried leaves of two species of tobacco pants – Nicotine Tobaccum and Nicotine rustica of family solanaceac. Tobacco contains highly poisonous alkaloid known as nicotine. Nicotine is a stimulating chemical that makes tobacco addictive. The tobacco smoke contains harmful substances such as carbon monoxide, N- nitrosodimenthyne. Polycyclic hydrocarbons like Bezpyrene and tar. It stimulates conduction of nerve impulsion, secretion of adrenalin hormone and causes constriction of blood vessels, increase heart beat rate, blood pressure and cardiac output.
3, Opioids: Opioids are the pain relieving medications. They act by binding to specific proteins called opioid receptors present in the brain, spinal cord and gastrointestinal tract of our body. They reduce the intensity of pain signals when these drugs attach their receptors e.g Morphine and heroin.
4, Cannabinoids: Are a group of chemical compounds which act on the receptors located on the cells which repress the release of certain neurotransmitters in the brain. They are obtained from the cannabis plant (cannabis sativa). Examples of these chemical are marijuana, hashish, ganja and charas. The effects of cannabiniods include drowsiness increased heart rate, hallucinations and problems with coordination, learning and memory.
5, Coca alkaloid or cocaine: It is a powerful addictive stimulant drug obtained from the leaves of the coca plant (Erytheoxylum coca). It is available as white powder or whitish rock crystals . It causes narrowing of blood vessels enlargement of pupil, high blood pressure, nausea, insomnia, poor nutrition etc.
Describe the symptoms of during addiction?
Following are the symptoms of drug addiction.
- Bloodshot eyes and pupils smaller or large than normal.
- Loss of appetite.
- Change in sleep patterns.
- Sudden loss or gain of body weight.
- Unsteady gait, slurred speech or unstable coordination.
- Uneasy to explain cause of injuries.
- Loss of interest in sports and extracurricular activities.
- Drop in attendance and performance at work or school.
- Frequently indulging in accidents fights, arguments and illegal activities.
- Unexpected or suspicious need for money, borrowing, stealing or missing valuable.
- Sudden change in relationship, behaviour, friends and hobbies.
- Unexpected mood changes, irritability, angry outbursts or laughing.
- Inability to focus, appearing lethargic, fearful and withdrawn.
What are the reasons of drug Abuse?
People generally take drugs to either feel good or anyone wanting to experiment with feeling high or different or to feel better. Individuals may take drugs in an attempt to cope with difficult situations including stress, trauma and symptoms of mental disorders.
Following are some of the reasons of drug abuse;
- Peer pressure.
- Curiosity Boredom
- Natural rebellion
- Promotion and availability.
- For enjoyment and relaxation.
- To deal with and relieve stress.
- To deal relationship problems.
- To overcome low self-esteem and to boost confidence.
- To cover cone painful memories in the past.
- To imitate family members, friends role models or entertainers using drugs.
What are STD’s? Name a few.
The disease that are transmitted through sexual intercourse with infectious person are known as Sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) or Vineral Diseases (VDs) or Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs). The causes of STDs are bacteria, viruses and parasites. Some of the common STD are as follows.
- Parasitic – Trichomonas
- Bacterial – Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Chlamydia etc.
- Viral – Hiv, Vital hepatitis etc.
Give the full form of ‘AIDS’ HIV?
The full form of AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV is human immunodeficiency virus.
Enlist the modes of transmission of AIDS?
AIDS can only be transmitted from an infected person to another through direct contact of bodily fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal sections and breast milk. The body fluids can get exchanged in these ways causing transmission of HIV.
1, Through Intercourse: This accounts for 75% of total transmission and is most dominant mode of HIV transmission. The probability of male to female transmission is much higher compared to female. Male as female is exposed to male secretions (e.g. semen) for longer duration.
2, Through blood transfusion: The efficiency of transmission through infected blood in 90%. The transmission through blood can take place through blood transfusion, blood products and contaminated equipments. The contaminated needles and syringes are the means of transmission among the users of intravenous drugs. Besides blood transfusion, the HIV can also spread cerebrospinal fluid and pericardial fluid.
3, Through infected mother to child: It may take place before, during or shortly after birth or through breast milk.
What are the common myths related with the transmission of AIDS?
The common myths regarding transmission of AIDS are that it spreads through following ways.
- Handshake, hugging and sitting together.
- Living in same house.
- Sleeping together.
- Slaring food, drink, plate, pen, computer etc.
- Using common household items.
- Mosquito bite and parasitic infection.
What measures would you recommend to prevent spread of AIDS?
We should take following steps to prevent spread of AIDS.
- Medical instrument must be properly sterilized with steam, dry heat, boiling in water or chemicals.
- Medical practitioners must wear gloves when dealing with such patients.
- Dispose off the used syringes and excretions.
- Utmost care must be taken treating patients when there is any exchange of body fluids.
- Condoms should be used at the time of having sex.
- Get tested and know the HIV status of your partner before having sex.
- Limit the number of sexual partners.
- Don’t inject drugs.
Name at least two methods for detection of HIV infections?
The tests for the diagnosis of HIV infection are ELISA (Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay test, western blot, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) etc.
How an AIDS patient should be treated?
AIDS patients can live a longer healthy life if they are provided with proper care and support.
Their immune system can he strengthened by medical treatment, food, rest and exercise.
They can cope up much better if they are happy and feel productive. Emotional support and a positive attitude will help them to avoid depression. They should be provided with organized counseling to reduce isolation and promote acceptance. They should not be discriminated and abused. We should make them feel that they are like us and are equally important in society.
What are the four symptom of AIDS?
The symptoms of AIDS are:
- Dry cough or shortness of breath.
- Painful swallowing.
- Severe and persistent diarrhoea lasting for more than a week.
- Mental symptom such as forget fulners, confusion and lack of coordination.
- White spots or unusual blemishes in and around the mouth.
- Pneumonia like symptom.
- Vision loss nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting.
- Swelling of lymph glands.
- Fungal infection in mouth and threat.
- Weight loss and abnormal slow growth.
What are the withdrawal symptoms of drug abuse?
The withdrawal symptoms of drug abuse are of two kinds emotional withdrawal symptom and physical withdrawal symptoms.
The emotional withdrawal symptoms involve restlessness, headaches, depression, anxiety, poor concentration, insomnia etc.
The physical withdrawal symptoms involve muscle tension, difficulty in breathing, sweating, heart attack, fatigue, racing heart palpitations.
What are effects of AIDS on a person?
HIV is a unique human RNA virus capable of infecting cells of immune system.
Specifically HIV targets helper cells (CD4 cells) leading to the eventual death of cell. CD4 cells are vital players in the regulation of immune responses to invading microorganisms.
In an untreated person, 10 billion to 100 billon new viruses are produced per day. Thus massive viral replication leads to progressives loss of CD4 cells over a period of several years to as long as a decade.
The destruction of CD4 cells renders a patient vulnerable to unusual opportunistic infections (OIS). Most patients who die from AIDS succumb to one or more opportunistic infections (OIs).
What are sedatives?
A sedative or tranquillizer is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
At higher doses, it may result in slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment and slow uncertain reflexes.
Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepine, when used as hypnotic to induce sleep tend to be higher than amounts used to relieve anxiety where as only low doses are needed to provide a peaceful effect.
Sedatives can be misused to produce on overly calming effect. In the event of an overdose or of combined with another sedatives, many of these drugs can cause unconsciousness and even death.
What is a retrovirus?
A retrovirus is a single stranded positive sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
Once inside the host cell cytoplasm, the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome, the reverse of the usual pattern, then retro (backwards).
The new DNA is then incorporated into the host cell genome by an integrase enzyme, at which point the retroviral DNA is referred to as a proviruses.
The host cell treats the viral DNA as apart of its own genome, translating and transcribing the viral genes along with the cell’s own genes, producing proteins required to assemble new copies of virus. It is difficult to detect the virus until it has infected the host. At that point the infection will persist indefinitely.
What is Gonorrhea? How is it transmitted?
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). It is caused by the infection with the bacterium neisseris gonorrhea. It tends to infect warm, most areas of the body including the urethra, eyes, throat, vagina, annus and female reproductive tract.
Gonorrhea passes from person to person through unprotected oral, analcor vaginal sex.
People with numerous sexual partners or those who don’t use a condom are at greatest risk of infection. The best protections against the infection are monogyny (Sex with only partner) and proper condom usage. The behaviour like alcohol abuse and illegal drug abuse increase the likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex and thereby suffering from infection.
What is CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4)?
It is a large glycoprotein especially found on the surface of T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. These are a type of white blood cells that fights infection.
These are made in spleen, lymph nodes and thymus glands. They move throughout the body helping to identify and destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.
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