NCERT Class 9 Improvement in Food Resources notes pdf

In the following section, you will get Class 9 science chapter 15 “improvement in food resources notes pdf”. These notes will help you a lot in your exam preparation.

Here We have provided summary and revision notes for Class 9 Science Chapter 15. These CBSE and NCERT notes contains NCERT and CBSE Key Notes, NCERT and CBSE Revision Notes, Short Key Notes, images, diagrams of the complete Chapter 15 titled Improvement in Food Resources of Science taught in class 9.

Improvement in Food Resources Questions and Answers

These Improvement in Food Resources notes are in the question answer format. These notes have been prepared by the subject experts who have been teaching science at various levels for past many years. These class 9 science notes will help you a lot in your exam preparation.

Some common terms

Manure: Manure is an organic matter mostly derived from animal faces except in case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.

Fertilizer: A fertilizer is any material of natural or synthetic origin containing nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium, spread into soil to increase its capacity to support plant growth.

Animal husbandry: Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans in which genetic qualities and behaviour , considered to be advantageous to humans are further developed.

Cattle farming: Cattle farming is the process of raising cattle from birth until the point at which they provide food or milk for consumption.

Poultry farming: Poultry farming is the raising of domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese for the purpose of farming meat, eggs or food.

Incubation: Hatching of eggs artificially in an incubator is called incubation.

Lactation Period: The time from birth of calf upto which an animal gives milk is called lactation period.

Brooding: The caring of chicks is called brooding.

Apiculture: The rearing of bees for obtaining honey and bee wax is called apiculture.

Induced Breeding: It is a technique in which fishes are injected pituitary gland extract to stimulate production of eggs even in non breeding season.

What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables?

The cereals provide us carbohydrates. The pulses give us protein. Fruits and vegetables give us a range of vitamins and minerals. In addition fruits and vegetables give us carbohydrates, proteins, fats and lots of fibres.

How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?

Biotic factors such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes cause various diseases in crops and thus reduce crop production.

Abiotic factors such as drought, salinity, water logging, heat, cold and frost cause stress which decrease crop production.

What are desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvement?

Tallness and profuse branching are the desired agronomic characters for foder crops.

Dwarfness is desired for cereal crops.

Long fibres and high strength is the desirable agronomic character for cotton plants.

What are macronutrients and why they are called macronutrients?

The elements nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and magnesium are macronutrients.

They are called so because they are used by plant in large quantity.

How do plants get nutrients?

Plants require 16 essential nutrients from air, water and soil. Soil is the main source of nutrients.

Thirteen of these nutrients are available from soil. The rest Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen are obtained from air and Water.

Compare the use of manure and fertilisers in maintaining soil fertility?

Manure contains many organic substances of biological origin which can be easily degraded and absorbed by plants.

It helps in recycling of biological waste. They increase the fertility of soil for long duration without causing any harm.

The chemical fertilisers on the other hand increase the fertility of soil for short duration but cause environmental hazards.

Continuous use of fertilisers in a particular area reduces soil fertility.

Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?

(a) Farmers use high quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilizers.

(b)Farmers use ordinary seeds adopt irrigation and use fertilizers.

(c)Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizers and use crop protections measures.

Conditions given in (c) should be followed by a farmer.

By using quality seeds, crop yield increases as they seeds germinate properly and produce healthy plants.

Fertilizers supply crop deficient nutrients in soil thereby increasing the crop production.

Water provided by irrigation is needed by plants to perform various metabolic activities and to fight against drought stress.

Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops?

Preventive measures include proper soil and seed preparation, time and sowing inter and mixed cropping etc.

Biological control method includes usage of biopesticides that are less toxic for the environment.

Preventive measures and biological control methods are both eco-friendly i.e, these do not cause environmental pollution and affect on other life forms.

What factors may be responsible for loss of grains during storage?

There are two main factors responsible for loss during storage, they are:

  1. Biotic:- The biotic factors include insects, rodents, birds, mites, bacteria, fungi etc.
  2. Abiotic:- The abiotic factors include moisture, temperature etc.

Which method is commonly used for improving cattle bread and why?

The milk production can be increased by the technique of selective breeding.

This is done by cross breeding between indigenous (local breed) low milk yield cow (female) and the bull of high milk yielding exotic breed.

The local cow is selected for the character of disease resistance and the exotic breed of bull is selected for the character of prolonged period of lactation and high yield of milk.

The breeding may be done by natural method or by artificial insemination.

By crossbreeding yield of milk and prolongation of lactation period occurs in crossbreeds.

Discuss how poultry is efficient converter of low food stuff fibre into nutritious animal protein?

Poultry birds utilize such agricultural byproducts which are unfit for human consumption e.g, paddy husk and oil cakes. On the other hand they give us eggs and high quality meat which serves as a cheap source of animal protein.

Name the management practices which are common in dairy and poultry farming?

The management practices which are common in dairy and poultry farming are:

  1. Maintenance of temperature.
  2. Proper housing facility having hygienic conditions.
  3. Proper feeding, and
  4. Prevention and control of diseases and pests.

What are differences between Broilers and Layers in their management.

Layers are egg laying birds managed for the purpose of getting eggsBroilers are maintained for getting meat.
Layers start producing eggs at the age of 20 weeks. So, they are kept for longer period purpose.They are raised up to 6-7 weeks in poultry.
They require enough space and adequate lighting.They require conditions to grow fast andfor slow mortality.
They need restricted and calculated feed, which is rich in vitamins, minerals and micronutrients.The daily food requirement for broilers is protein and Vitamins A and K.

How are fish obtained?

Fishes are obtained by two methods viz Capture fishing and Culture fishing.

  1. Capturing fishing:- In capture fishing fishes are obtained from natural resources such as lakes, rivers, ponds, dams and oceans.
  2. Cultural fishing:– It is also called fish farming. In this method fishes are obtained from fish farms which are managed by some persons for commercial purpose.

What are the advantages of composite fish culture?

In composite fish culture the different species of fishes having different feeding habits are cultured in a single pond.

These fishes do not compete for food with one another, which results in high production of fishes.

All the available food in the pond is effectively utilized which results in high production of fishes. This method is called composite fish farming.

What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production?

The desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production are:

  1. They should sting less.
  2. They should produce comparatively more honey and wax.
  3. They should stay for longer period in a given bee hive.
  4. They should breed well.

What is pasturage and how is it related to honey production?

The area around the apiary containing flowers for pollen and nector is called pasturage.

The quality and taste of honey depends upon the type of flowers present in the pasturage.

Explain any one method of crop production which assures high yielding?

Application of manures and fertilizers is the method which assures high yield in crops.

We know that plants use a number of mineral elements for proper growth but due to repeated cultivation these mineral elements are depleted from soil.

Addition of manures and fertilizers restores these mineral elements in soil which results in high yield.

Why are manures and fertilizers added to soil?

Manures and fertilizers added to the soil increase the fertility of the soil, which results in high crop production.

What are the advantages of inter cropping and crop rotation?

Inter cropping and crop rotation helps in increasing yield, maintaining fertility of soil and helps in controlling diseases and checking soil erosion.

What is genetic manipulation how genetic manipulation helps in crop improvement?

Genetic manipulation is a technique in which one or few genes are introduced from one plant into the other plant in order to incorporate the desirable characters in later. e.g, the genes from Daffodil have been introduced in to rice plant to increase the concentration of vitamin A in it and genes (DNA segments) from a grass plant have been introduced into wheat to make it draught resistant.

Genetic manipulation helps to produce new varieties which are resistant to diseases, have high quality and give high yield.

How do storage grains losses occur?

Both biotic and abiotic factors are responsible for causing damage to grains during storage.

Due to them grain quality is degraded. Moisture and humidity invite disease inciting organisms. It may led to discolouration, loss in weight and disintegration of food materials in storage grain.

At high temperature, microorganisms and enzymes become active, thereby the damaging the quality of storage grain.

How do good animal husbandry practices benefit farmers?

Good animal husbandry practices help the farmers in increased milk production through proper cattle farming; increased egg and meat production through good poultry management measures; improved quality of fish meat through advanced methods of pisciculture; proper utilization of animal wastes to produce compost and Gobar gas; increased honey and bee wax production through better apiculture methods; etc.

So good animal husbandry practices can ensure the proper nutrition of our growing population.

What are benefits of cattle farming?

Benefits of cattle farming are:

  1. Production of milk and food (beef, mutton).
  2. Manure which is used as fertilizer.
  3. Skin of animals is used for various commercial purposes, e.g. making of shoes, bags, etc.

For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping?

For increasing production these need good management practices like:

  1. Use of high-yielding varieties.
  2. Maintenance of temperature and hygienic conditions.
  3. Providing good feed.
  4. Prevention and control of diseases and pests.

What is difference between capture fishing Mari culture and aquaculture?

Capture fishing:- It is the method of catching fishes from natural sources such as seas, Rivers, lakes, streams etc.

Mariculture:- It is the method of culturing marine fishes in coastal waters.

Aquaculture:- In aquaculture fishes are cultured in fresh water ponds.

So, these were Improvement in Food Resources notes pdf. We are sure that you will share these notes with your friends.

CBSE Science Notes For Class 9 Chapter wise pdfCheck
Chapter 1 – Matter In Our Surroundings Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 2 – Is Matter Around Us Pure Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 3 – Atoms And Molecules Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 4 – Structure Of The Atom Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 5 – The Fundamental Unit Of Life Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 6 – Tissues Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 7 – Diversity In Living Organisms Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 8 – Motion Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 9 – Force And Laws Of Motion Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 10 – Gravitation Notes pdf, Floatation Notes pdfClick here
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Chapter 11 – Work And Energy Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 12 – Sound Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 13 – Why Do We Fall Ill Notes pdfClick here
Chapter 14 – Natural Resources Notes pdfClick here

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