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NCERT Class 10 Science Management of Natural Resources Questions and Answers
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Define Resources and what are their types?
Resources can be defined as a source of supply held in reserve, which is useful to man or can be transformed into more valuable and useful items for mankind.
Resources are of two types: (i) Natural resources and (ii) Man-made resources.
Natural resources: Natural resources can be defined as those living or non-living substances available in the normal environment which are being exploited for supporting life and meeting human requirements. e.g water, soil, minerals.
Man-made resources: Those resources which are manufactured or synthesized by man. e.g. plastic, fertilizers, pesticides etc.
Classification of Natural resources.
Due to large variety and variable characteristics, natural resources can be classified into two broad categories: 1. Biotic resources 2. Abiotic resources.
- Biotic resources: Living beings and the substances derived from them constitute the biotic resources. Animals, forests, fish and the substances derived from them such as timber and coal are examples of biotic resources.
- Abiotic resources: Natural non-living things and their derivatives constitute the Abiotic resources. Air, water and sunlight are its good examples.
On the basis of abundance and availability, natural resources are classified into two types:
- Exhaustible resources: Those resources which are not created regularly in the natural systems and are available in limited quantity. They are not likely to be available after being used once. Such resources are called exhaustible resources. These include minerals, fossil fuels etc.
- Inexhaustible resources: Those resources which are created or regenerated in the natural systems continuously and they are likely to be available for all times to come. Such resources are called inexhaustible resources. These include air, clay, sand, tidal energy, solar energy, rain water etc.
Why do we need to manage our resources?
Natural resources are limited and with the continuous increase in human population, the demands for natural resources have been increased at a tremendous rate.
Modern scientific technology has helped the man to extract these resources on much larger scale. Thus natural resources require a long term management so that these will last for generation to come and will not be merely exploited for short term gains.
The excessive use of natural resources and disturbance in the natural balance has caused ecological crisis.
This crisis has resulted in the environmental pollution which has threatened the life of man on earth.
For example, mining causes pollution because of the large amount of slag which is discarded during extraction of metals.
Thus there should be proper plan for the safe disposal of the wastes of natural resources in order to save the environment from the pollution.
What is conservation? Explain its types?
Conservation may be defined as the judicious and controlled use of natural resources for the benefit of life on earth.
It is an important precautionary measure that provides valuable contribution to the economic development of the society.
Types of conservation
There are two main types of conservation:
1. ‘In situ’ conservation and 2. ‘Ex situ’ conservation.
- ‘In situ’ conservation: When conservation of natural resources is done in their natural habitat, it is called ‘in situ conservation e.g. national parks, wild life, sanctuaries, biosphere etc.
- ‘Ex situ’ conservation: When conservation of natural resources is done outside their habitats, It is called ‘ex situ’ conservation e.g. botanical gardens, zoos, pollen storage, tissue culture etc.
What are the three R’s to save natural resources?
The three R’s necessary to save environment are Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.
- Reduce: Natural resources can be saved by their lesser use. It means, we must use every thing in less quantity to conserve the resources. We should avoid unnecessary use of electricity, wasting of food and water, cutting of trees, too much use of automobiles, etc.
- Recycle: There are certain resources which can be recycled to be used again. The materials like plastic, clothes, paper and metal pieces which are not of any use at our home are recycled to make required things instead of synthesizing or extraction of fresh plastic, paper, glass or metal. It helps to reduce the production of fresh items. Thus, recycling saves resources, decreases use of toxic chemicals, cuts the use of energy and helps the environment in many ways.
- Reuse: It is better than recycling because in this process we use the already used article again and again and no energy is required as compared to recycling. For example, a plastic container in which we buy various food-items like tea leaves, sweets or pickle can be reused for storing some other things in the kitchen. For example, newspapers and magazines can be used to make envelopes.
Write a short note on forests?
The forest is a complex ecosystem consisting mainly of trees that have formed a buffer for the earth to protect life forms.
The trees which make up the main area of the forest create a special environment, which in turn affect the kinds of animals and plants that can exist in the forest.
The FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) has defined forest as land with tree crown cover of more than 10% and area of more than 0.5 hectare).
The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 m at maturity. In the tropical and subtropical region, forests are further subdivided into plantations and natural forests.
Natural forests are forests composed of indigenous trees, not deliberately planted. Plantations are defined as forests established by planting/seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation)
Forests can develop wherever there is an average temperature greater than about 10° C in the warmest month and an annual rainfall in excess of about 200 mm annually.
In any area having conditions above this range there exists an infinite variety of tree species grouped into a number of stable forest types that are determined by the specific conditions of the environment there.
Forests can be broadly classified into many types, some of which are the Taiga type (consisting of pines, spruce, etc.) the mixed temperate forests with both coniferous and deciduous trees, the temperate forests, the sub tropical forests, the tropical forests, and the equatorial rainforests. There are about 16 major types of forests in India from the tropical type to the dry type.
In India it is believed that organized exploitation of forest wealth began with an increase in hunting. Ashoka the Great is said to have set up the first sanctuary to protect the forests and all life in it. The Mughal rulers were avid hunters and spent a great deal of time in the forests.
It was during the British rule that the first practical move towards conservation in modern times took place. They established ‘Reserved Forest’ blocks with hunting by permit only. Though there were other motives behind their move, it at least served the purpose of classification of and control over the forests.
Uses of forests.
Forests are the most important environmental components responsible for the essence of life on earth. They produce many valuable things and maintain ecological balance of the land area.
The important products we get from forests are as follows:
Wood: The wood which we get from forests is utilized almost in all the spheres of day to day life. For example, it is needed as timber, wooden crates for packing fruits, tea ete. paper board and news prints.
Industry also consumes much of wood. Wood is also used for making boats, sports goods, railway sleepers etc. (In developing countries a major portion of wood is consumed as fire – wood.
Food and spices: Forests give us most of dry fruits (e.g. almond, walnut, cashew nut, coconut etc and spices (e.g. clove cinnamon, cardamom etc).
Forests provide us Tannins, Gums. Resins and Dyes. Tannins are used in the preparation of inks and leather polish. Gums in the preparation of chewing gums) and resins (such as haematoxylin and henna) are also obtained from forests.
Forests are the best producers of many drugs and medicines, e.g. quinine, aconite, belladonna etc. The other products such as natural rubber, rudraksha, tendu leaves, cork, honey, coamphor etc are also the gifts of forests.
What do you mean by sustainable management of forests?
Sustainable management of forest resources means to manage the forests and its products in such a way so that it will continue to benefit generations to come and will help in maintaining the biodiversity and ecological balance of the forests.
Forests are rich and complex ecosystems, which support biodiversity, provide valuable ecological services and have considerable potential for tourism. In particular, millions of poor people depend on forest ecosystems for food, water, fuel, fibre and both timber and non-timber products-indeed, for their survival.
To achieve sustainability, there must be a rethinking of what we consider a basic need. It is common in our society to say that we need a given resource but how much of it do we really need to use. Also, how do we decide what the basic needs of our ecosystem and the organisms living within it are?
Defining what constitutes a basic need is perhaps the greatest challenge to adopt sustainability practices in our daily lives.
Write a short note on the Chipko Andolan (Hug the trees movement)?
The ‘Chipko Andolan’ (Hug the trees movement’) was the movement which originated from an incident in a remote village called Reni in Garhwal, high-up in the Himalayas during the early 1970s.
There was a dispute between the local villagers and a logging contractor who had been allowed to fell trees in a forest close to the village. The local villagers stood against the ruthless cutting of the trees.
At the initial stage of the movement (in 1972), the women of Advani village in Tehri-Garhwal protested againsteihdiscriminate felling of trees by clasping the tree trunks. In March 1973, a sports goods factory was to cut ten Ash trees near the village Mandal in Chamoli district. The local people prevented the same by hugging (Hindi Chipke) the marked trees. In 1974, a group of women led by Gaurs Devi successfully prevented felling of trees near village Reni. The movement became famous in 1978 when the women of Advani village in Tehri-Garhwal faced police firing and later courted arrest.
In this way, the “Chipko Movement” spread slowly to all nearby areas under the leadership of Shri Sunderlal Bahuguna of Silyara in Tehri region and Shri Chandi Prasad Bhatt of Gopeshwar.
What is Deforestation? Give its reasons?
The indiscriminate cutting or felling down of trees leads to destruction, reduction or removal of forest cover, this is known as deforestation.
Reasons for deforestation:
- Expansion of agriculture: The increasing demand of food has resulted in deforestation, to convert forests into agricultural fields.
- Firewood collection: In rural and suburban areas, firewood is the main source of fuel. To obtain firewood large numbers of trees are being felled every year resulting in the depletion of forests.
- Timber harvesting: Felling or logging of forest trees for obtaining timber is an important cause of deforestation.
- Urbanization and industrialization: Extension of urban areas and establishment of industries are the important factors causing depletion of forest resources.
- Cultivation on hill slopes: Forests existing on hill slopes are gradually being destroyed, in order to use these slopes for cultivation.
- Cattle ranching: Large areas of tropical forests have been converted into grazing fields to raise cattle.
- Fire: Fire in the forests cause devastating effect on trees and wild animals. vili) Constructing of roads, railway tracks and mining are other factors responsible for deforestation:
- Shifting cultivation: In this method of cultivation (popularly known as jhoom kheti or slash and burn cultivation), a patch of forests is cleared, vegetation is burnt and ash is mixed with soil to increase fertility. Crop is grown there till the land is fertile, after that the cultivators move to other patch of forest. In this way forests are being destroyed. In India this type of cultivation is observed in North Eastern region.
What are the consequences of deforestation?
The Consequences of deforestation are listed below:-
- Change in climatic conditions, like temperature, humidity, wind velocity, precipitation, etc.
- Soil degradation and erosion.
- Depletion and change in pattern of rainfall.
- Loss of wildlife.
- Destruction of natural habitat and reduction in biodiversity. vi) Increase in environmental pollution.
- Increase in frequency of floods and droughts.
What do you mean by conservation of forests?
The development, management and full protection of existing forest cover to provide optimum sustainable yield is called as conservation of forests. For the conservation of forests, some of the important measures are suggested as:
- Afforestaion: The afforestation or plantation of indigenous or exotic species to develop forests prevents denaturation of natural forests. The plants developed in all the available land of villages, fields, road sides and waste lands help the villagers, cattle and small industries to meet their basic requirements. Several forest protection committees involve villagers to follow many afforestation schemes.
- Conservation of reserve forests: Many areas of natural forests are protected from fuel-starved villagers, fodder starved cattle and commercial exploitations. These areas include national parks, sanctuaries, sacred graves, biosphere reserves etc. Such forests are not allowed to be disturbed.
- Social forestry: It is described as “forestry from the people, by the people and for the people.” It includes rising of trees on government owned lands for obtaining food, fodder, wood, fruits, etc. Social forestry was started in India by National Commission of Agriculture (NCA) in 1976 to reduce pressure on real forests.
- Agro forestry: It is a type of afforestation where multipurpose trees, shrubs, horticultural plants and forage plants are grown in fields along with crops. It fulfils the requirement of fodder, fruits, flowers, fuel wood and timber. Agro forestry also reduces pressure on real forests.
- Urban forestry: It is a special type of afforestation of multipurpose trees, shrubs and flower or fruit bearing plants in open lands of urban areas. It helps to check air pollution and reduce noise pollution. It is also helpful in providing fuel, wood, timber, fruits and many other products.
What is Wildlife? What is its importance?
All the naturally occurring life forms in the forest, which are neither domesticated nor tamed, are collectively called wildlife. The term wildlife was coined by William Hornady in 1913. The wildlife has a great importance in maintaining the ecological balance of forests.
Importance of wildlife:
- The wildlife can be used commercially to earn money through tourism.
- The wildlife provides best means of sports and recreation.
- The wildlife is responsible for maintaining the natural balance of the environment.
- The wild plants act as producers on which thrives the herbivorous animals upon whom depends the carnivorous ones.
- The wildlife is deeply related to literature, religion, art, sculpture and culture.
- Study of wildlife helps naturalists to study living organisms in their natural habitat.
- Wildlife is considered as gene bank, which can be used for producing high yielding plants
- and animals through the process of selection and hybridization.
- Wildlife is a symbol of national pride and represents the cultural heritage.
- Since wildlife is a renewable source of large variety of commercial products, like food, fur, lac, musk, leather, ivory, timber, fibre, fodder, fuel, medicines, etc it can be used time and again.
What are the various threats to wildlife?
The various threats to wildlife are: hunting, destruction of habitats, overgrazing by domestic animals, endangered flora and fauna and economic consideration of some animals as they are always in great demand for their highly priced articles like skin, wool fur, horn, musk, ivory etc.
What are endangered species? Give some examples of endangered plant and animal species?
All those species of plants (flora) and animal (fauna) which are liable to become extinct are called endangered species.
Examples of some endangered plant species:
- Nepenthes Khasiana (pitcher plant)
- Snow orchid
- Drosera indica (insectivores plant)
- Aldsovanda vesiculosa
- Rhus hookeri
Examples of some endangered animal species:
- Indian wild ass
- Great Indian rhinoceros
- Indian wolf
- Lion tailed macaque
- Tillyards dragonfly
What do you know about wildlife conservation?
Wildlife conservation is the management of wild flora and fauna in order to save them from their extinction as well as to get sustainable benefit for both the present and the future generations.
Various governmental organizations and NGO’s have been set up to protect the wildlife. These organizations mainly focus at:
- Protection of natural habitat.
- Maintenance of wildlife in protected areas (reserves).
- Protection through legislation.
(i) Protection of natural habitats: Natural habitats of animals must be protected by identification and safeguard of feeding, resting, breeding and nursing habitats of each species.
(ii) Maintenance of wildlife in protected areas: The wildlife can be protected and maintained in protected areas such as in biosphere reserves, national parks and in sanctuaries.
(iii) Protection through legislation: In India, several laws and acts have passed from time to time in order to protect the dwindling wildlife. Out of all. the wildlife (protection) act, 1972 is treated as the most effective. Under this act, possession, trapping, shooting of wild animals alive or dead, serving their meat in eating houses, their transport etc are completely under strict control. There are some laws and acts of wildlife conservation which are made by state as well as union government. Among those some are mentioned below:
- CITES – Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: It regulates international trade of wild florae and fauns (1976)
- IBWL – Indian Board of Wild Life (1952)
- MAB – The Man and Biosphere program of UNESCO: It was started in 1971 for studying biosphere reserves.
(iv) The preservation of trees act, introduced in 1975 to protect and regulate felling of trees and to provide space for planting of new trees in those areas. The act was emended in 1996.
(V) Special projects for endangered species: Project Tiger (1973), Gir Lion Project (1972),Crocodile Breeding Project (1974) etc.
What changes would you suggest for water harvesting designs for rainfall areas in J&K State?
We suggest the following designs which depend on the soil, topography, size of the land holding etc.
- Contour cultivation: Contour cultivation would form barriers across the flow path of runoff water. It is most affective on moderate slopes. The water is collected in the depressions.
- Contour bunding: The construction of narrow based bunds on contour to impound runoff water behind them, so the impounded water is absorbed gradually into the soil profile. The bunds are normally impounded upto a height of 30cms. The bunds should be constructed from the top of the catchment and preceded downwards.
- Bench terracing: It involves converting the original ground into level step like fields constructed by half cutting and half filling, which reduces the degree of slope. It is practiced on steep hilly slopes where agriculture practices are common.
- Strip farming: It is method of farming when a slope is too steep or too long. Strip farming helps to stop soil erosion by creating natural dams for water, helping to pressure the strength of the soil. The principle lying behind this process is to collect runoff water from catchment area to improve soil moisture on the cropped area.
- Storing runoff water for recycling: In semi-arid areas, summer rainfall is short in duration and the intensity of rainfall is high which gives high runoff. This is because high intensity of rainfall has low infiltration rate and runoff rate is therefore, very high. Therefore, catchment area, which has low-lying region, is selected and bunded for collection of runoff water.
- Check dam construction on Nallas and off-stream: It is a process in which construction of bunds of suitable dimensions across Nalla or stream is carried out to hold maximum runoff water and to create temporary flooding in the stream with arrangements to drain water at suitable intervals. The water released from bunds will be free from silts and will have suitable velocity, which is unable to cause erosion.
What are dams? Give some examples of few important dams in India?
Dams are the large water-storing bodies usually built by the government agencies across the rivers to regulate the flow of water. They store enormous amount of water sufficient for irrigation of fields throughout the year. Many dams have been constructed across the major rivers in India which serve as big store houses of river water. The stored water is then allowed to flow downstream in order to generate electricity and carry water to long distances for the purpose of irrigation. Thus, dams not only help in the irrigation of agricultural fields, but also employed for generation of electricity. Some example of famous dams and canals in India are:
- Bhakra dam: It is built across the river Satluj in the state of Punjab. (it) Sardar Sarovar dam: It is built on the river Narmada in 1940 in the state of Gujrat.
- Tehri dam: It is situated on the river Ganga in Tehri. (Uttaranchal)
- Tawa dam: It is a large reservoir on the Tawa river located in Hoshangabad (M.P)
- Mettur dam: It is situated on river Kaveri in Tamilnadu and is one of the oldest dams in India.
- Indira Gandhi canal: It is spread over a large area of Rajasthan. It has brought greenery in deserts.
What are the various uses of dams?
The various uses of dams are as follows:
- Large dams store adequate amount of water which is used for irrigation in fields through a canal system. The canal systems originating from dams can transfer large amounts of water to great distances which helps to raise agricultural production in far away places. e.g. Indira Gandhi Canal originating from Bhakra dam has brought greenery in deserts of Rajasthan.
- Dams ensure continuous water supply in the surrounding area. It is also used to supply water in towns and cities through pipe lines.
- The water of dams flowing from a height is used for generating electricity.
Discuss the problems associated with the construction of large dams?
The problems associated with the construction of large dams can be categorized into following categories:
- Social problems: Construction of high-rise dams results in a vast area of land submerged under water. Many people residing in the area are rendered homeless. This creates displacement of a large number of peasants and tribes without adequate compensation or rehabilitation. These social problems result in protests like “Narmada Bachao Andholan” (Save the Narmada Movement’). The people who have been displaced by the construction of Tawa Dam in the 1970s are still fighting for the benefits they were promised.
- Economic problems: Construction of high-rise dams swallow up huge amounts of public money without the generation of proportionate benefits.
- Environmental problems: The construction of dams also contributes enormously to deforestation, loss of biodiversity and displacement of poor tribals. Large reservoirs of water formed by the dams destroy flora and fauna of the area which get submerged under water.
What is rainwater harvesting?
It is the technique of capturing and storing rain water into dug wells, check dams and percolation pits in order to increase the recharge of ground water. Rain water is stored in ground water reservoirs by adopting artificial recharge techniques in order to meet the household needs through storage in tanks. Two techniques involved are: 1. Rooftop harvesting and 2. Check dam and percolating pits.
Management Of Natural Resources, Very Short Answer Type Questions
These are some short answer questions about the science chapter ”management of natural resources”.
List any two traditional systems of water harvesting.
Two traditional systems of water harvesting are:
- Collection of water in ponds and
- Construction of small earthen dams.
Name any two forest products, each of which is the basis for some industry.
The two forest products, each of which forms the basis for some industry are listed below:
- Pine wood for matchbox industry.
- Bamboo for paper industry.
State two changes you can make in your habits to reduce the consumption of electricity or water.
Two changes that can be made to reduce the consumption of electricity or water are:
- Switch off lights and fans when not in use.
- Leaked taps should be repaired immediately.
Name any two items which can be easily recycled but generally thrown in the dustbins by us?
(i) Envelops (ii) Carry bags.
How does increasing demand for energy adversely affect our environment?
To meet the increased demand for energy, more and more natural resources are exploited. Pollutants are emitted during exploitation and use of natural resources which affect our environment.
List any two causes of our failure to sustain availability of underground water.
Two causes of our failure to sustain availability of underground water are:
- Rising population: As the population increases, demand for water increases resulting in depletion of underground water level.
- Industrialization: Industries need more and more water to manufacture products. With growing industrialization, demand for water increases which results in reduction in the availability of underground water.
What is water harvesting? Mention any two water harvesting structures.
Water harvesting means capturing rainwater where it falls or capturing the run off in a local area for future use.
Two water harvesting structures are Khadins in Rajasthan and Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh.
What are the advantages of water harvesting?
The advantages of water harvesting are:
- It provides drinking water.
- It provides irrigation water.
- It is responsible for the increase in groundwater level.
- It reduces storm water discharge, urban flood and overloading of sewage treatment plants.
What is ‘Chipko Movement’? Why should we conserve forests?
Chipko Movement’ is a non-political public movement for conservation of natural habitat and wildlife by preventing excessive commercial exploitation of forests. Chipko means ‘hug’ and the movement was started by the villagers of Garhwal by hugging trees to stop the contractors from cutting the trees.
We should conserve forests because it helps in protection of land, retaining sub- soil water, checking floods, and thereby maintain in the ecosystem.
Suggest any four changes that you would like to incorporate in the life style of students of your age to move towards a sustainable use of available resources.
The four changes that I would pike to incorporate in the life style of students of my age to move towards sustainable use of available resources are:
- Follow the principle of three R’s-reduce, recycle and reuse.
- Plant more trees.
- Use public transport, school bus and car pools.
- Switch off unnecessary lights and fans, thereby save electricity.
What is meant by sustainable management of natural resources? What are its advantages?
Sustainable management of resources means the management of natural resources with a long- term perspective so that they last for generations to come and are not exploited for the short- term gains.
The advantages of sustainable management of resources are given below:
- Resources last for a longer duration.
- It provides steady economic growth.
- It helps in ecological conservation.
- It reduces pollution.
These were the questions and answers of management of natural resources. These management of natural resources notes will help you a lot in your exams.