Himalayas, Important Ranges and Peaks, Top MCQs

This section deals with Himalayas and their important ranges. This topic is very important from the examination point of view, and many questions from this topic are asked in almost every exam conducted by UPSC, SSC, and other state level boards and commissions. We are very sure that you will find this section very useful for your exam preparation.


Himalyas are one of the youngest fold mountains in the world and are made up of sedimentary rocks mainly. They along with other associated ranges form the northern boundary of India.

Himalayas extend between Indus river in the west and Brahamputra river in the west.The total length of Himalayas is about 5000 km. Half of it is in the form of an arc that is concave towards north.

The width of the Himalayas varies from 500 km in Kashmir to 200 km in Arunachal Pradesh. Their average height is 2000 m.

Himalyas were formed in tertiary era by the intra plate folding in the region formerly occupied by the Tethys sea which existed between Gondwanaland and Angaraland. This intra plate folding is still going on leading to frequent earthquakes in the region.

The Eastern Himalayas-made up of Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Mizo Hills and the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills-are also known as Purvanchal.

The Pamir, popularly known as the Roof of the World, is the connecting link between the Himalayas and the high ranges of Central Asia.

Major Ranges Of Himalayas | Horizontal Division Of Himalayas

The Himalayas comprise of a number of almost parallel ranges stretching between Indus river in the west and the Brahamputra river in the east.

The mountainous region to the west of the Indus river is known as Trans-Himalayas and the hilly region to the east of the Brahamputra is known as Purvanchal.

Generally, Himalayas are divided into three horizontal divisions. They are:

1. The Great Himalayas or The Himadri

This range is also known as Central Himalayas, and is the northern-most and the highest range of the Himalayan system.

Average elevation extends upto 6000m and some of the world’s highest peaks are here. These highest peaks are Mt Everest (also called Sagarmatha or Chomu Longma) in Nepal, Mt Kanchenjunga in India, Mount Lhotse in Nepal-Tibet, Mt Makalu in Nepal, Mt Dhaulagiri in Nepal, Mt Chọ Oyu in Nepol, Mt Nanga Parbat in India, Mt Annapurna in Nepol, Mt Nanda Devi in India.

There are few passes and almost all of them have a height above 4,500 m. They include Shipki La and Bara Lacha La in Himachal Pradesh, Burzil, Banihal, Chang La and Zozi La in Jammu & Kashmir, Niti La, Lipulekh and Thag La in Uttarakhand, Bomdi la in Arunachal Pradesh and Jelep La and Nathu La in Sikkim.

Jammu and KashmirBurzil Pass and Zoji La
Himachal PradeshBara Lacha La and Shipki La
UttarakhandThaga La, Niti Pass and Lipu Lekh
SikkimNathu La and Jelep La

Granite, Schist and Gneiss are the chief rocks forming the Great Himalayan range.

Also Read: Folk Dances Of Jammu Kashmir, All Details and Top MCQs

2. Lesser Himalayas | The Himachal

The range extends to the south of the Greater Himalayas, and it is also known as middle Himalayas.

This range is broader than the Greater Himalayas, but its height is lesser. The average height of the mountains in this range is 3700 to 4500 m.

This range is separated from the Greater Himalayas by the Main Central Thrust Zone.

Some important ranges in the lesser Himalayas are Dhauladhar, Pir Panjal, Nag Tibba, Mahabharata and Mussorie. Important hill resorts in this range are Shimla, Ranikhet, Mussorie, Naintal, Almora and Darjeeling.

Important Ranges Of Lesser HimalayasRegion
The Pir Panjal RangeJammu and Kashmir
The DhaulaDhar RangeHimachal Pradesh
The Mussoorie Range and The Nag Tibba RangeUttarakhand
Mahabharat LekhNepal

Jawahar Tunnel, that connects Srinagar with Jammu lies in the Pir Panjal Range of Lesser Himalayas.

The dominant rocks of this range are Slate, Limestone and Quartzite.

3. Outer Himalayas | Siwaliks

This is the third and the lowest range of the Himalayan system. It is the southern-most range of the Himalayas, and is also known as Sub-Himalayas.

Siwaliks are separated from the Midde Himalayas by Main Boundry Thrust, and Himalayan Frontal Fault marks the boundry between the Siwaliks and the alluvial plains to its south.

This range is the youngest and lowest of all the three ranges and have a general elevation of 900m to 1200 m.

This range separates the plains from the alluvium filled basins called Duns and Duars.

The Siwalik Range extends only in the western part of the Himalayas and in the eastern part, this range is believed to have been eroded and buried in alluvium.

Regional Divisions Of Himalayas | Longitudinal Divisions OF Himalayas

According to regional divisions, the Himalayas can be divided into the following units:

1. Punjab Himalayas

These Himalayas extend between The River Indus and River Satluj. It is the western most part of the region and is 562 km in width.

2. Kumaon Himalayas

The Kumaon Himalayas extend between the Satluj river and the Kali river. These Himalayas are about 320 km in width.

3. Nepal Himalayas

The Nepal Himalayas extend between Kali river in the west and the Teesta river in the east. This is the widest of all the regional divisions of Himalayas and has a width of about 800 km. The Nepal Himalayas are the home of the Highest peaks of the Himalayas like Mount Everest.

4. Assam Himalayas

This is the eastern-most division of Himalayas and extends between Teesta river in the west and Brahamaputra river in the east. These part has a width of about 750 km and the height of the mountains in this region is least.

List Of Himalayan peaks from west to east

List of Himalayan Peaks from west to east direction.

1, Nanga Parbat 2. Nunkun 3. Kamet 4. Badarinath 5. Nanda Devi 6. Nanda Kot 7. Api Himal 8. Saipal 9. Churen Himal 10. Dhaulagiri 11. Annapurna 12. Manasalu 13. Himalchuli 14. Ganesh 15. Gaurishankar 16. Choyu 17. Mount Everest 18. Makalu 19. Kanchenjunga 20. Nancha Barwa.

Trans Himalayas | Tibetan Himalayas

North of the Great Himalayas lie the Trans Himalayas, also known as Tibetan Himalayas. Trans Himalayas act as a watershed between rivers flowing to north and those flowing to the south. This range is separated from the Eurasian plate by the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone.

The trans Himalayas includes the Karakoram range, Ladakh Range and the Zaskar Range. They are discussed below:

Ladakh range

  • This range is situated to the north of the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) and south of Karakoram, between River Indus and Shyok.
  • Highest Peak of Ladakh range is Mt. Rakaposhi, which is also the steepest peak in the world.
  • The Kailash Range is an offshoot of the Ladakh range. The highest peak of Kailash Range is Mt. Kailash (6714m).

Karakoram Range

  • Karakoram range extends from the Pamir, east of the Gilgit River, 600 km long and the average width –120-140 km.
  • The ancient name of Karakoram range was Krishnagiri.
  • This range is the abode of largest glaciers in India, like Siachen, Baltoro, Biafo, and Hisper glaciers.
  • The highest peak of Karakoram ranhe is Mt K2, which is also called Godwin Austen or Qogir. It is the highest Peak in India (8611 m).
  • Some other Important Peaks in Karakoram range are Gasherbrum I or Hidden Peak, Broad Peak and Gasherbrum II.
  • In the northern limit of Karakoram Range lies the Pamir, the Aghil Mountains, and the Yarkand River and in the southern limit lies the River Indus and its tributary Shyok.

Zaskar Range

  1. Zaskar range is situated on the western part of the Greater Himalaya and to the south of Trans Himalaya.
  2. It is part of the Tethys Himalayas. It extends from Uttaranchal to Jammu and Kashmir.

Importance Of Himalayas

Himalyas are very essential for India as they act as a store house of water and the sink of carbon dioxide. Without them, the cold winds from siberia would directly hit the interiors of India thus directly affect all the aspects of the life. In the absence of the Himalayas, the monsoon winds would fail to undergo orogenic lifting and thus fail to cause rainfall. They also act as a natural shield against the foreign invasion.

MCQs On Himalayas | Indian Geography Quiz On Himalyas

In the following section, you will get very important MCQs on Himalayas. These questions are very important from the examination point of view.

The literal meaning of the word “Himalyas” is?

  1. abode of avalanches
  2. abode of gods
  3. abode of snow
  4. store house of water

abode of snow

Which among the following is widest?

  1. Punjab Himalyas
  2. Kumaon Himalyas
  3. Nepal Himalyas
  4. Assam Himalyas

Nepal Himalyas

The two rivers within which the Punjab Himalyas extend are?

  1. Indus and Satluj
  2. Satluj and Kali
  3. Kali and Teesta
  4. Teesta and Brahamputra

Indus and Satluj

If you move from west to east, the correct order of the following Himalayan peaks is?

  1. Kanchenjunga
  2. Mt. everest
  3. Nanda Devi
  4. Dhaulagiri
  1. 3,4,2,1
  2. 1,2,3,4
  3. 3,1,4,2
  4. 4,1,2,3


Which of the following is true?

  1. Siachen, Baltaro and Biafo glaciers are in Karakoram range.
  2. The highest peak of Ladakh range is Mt Rakaposhi, which is also considered as the steepest peak in the world.
  3. mount K2 is also called Qogir.
  4. the extension of Ladakh range in Tibet is called Kailash.
  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 1,2 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 4 only
  4. all of them

all of them

In the absence of Himalyas, what would have been the most likely geographical impact on India?

  1. Much of the country would experience the cold waves from Siberia.
  2. Indo Gangetic plain would be devoid of such extensive alluvial soil.
  3. the pattern of monson would be different from what it is at present.
  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. all of them

all of them

Nanda Devi is a part of?

  1. Assam Himalyas
  2. Kumaon Himalyas
  3. Nepal Himalyas
  4. Punjab Himalyas

Kumaon Himalyas

When you travel in Himalyas, you will see the following?

  1. deep gorges
  2. u turn river courses
  3. parallel mountain ranges
  4. steep gradients causing landslides

which of the above can be said to be an evidence for Himalyas to be young fold mountains?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1,2 and 4 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. all of them

all of them

Mount K2 is a part of?

  1. Greater Himalyas
  2. Karokaram range
  3. Zaskar Range
  4. PirPanjal Range

Karokaram range

The Greater Himalyas take a syntaxial bend in North East near?

  1. Namcha Barwa
  2. Nanga Parbat
  3. Garo Hills
  4. none

Namcha Barwa

The southern slopes of Shiwaliks in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh do not have any forest cover. These slopes are highly dissected by seasonal streams. Those streams are called?

  1. Chos
  2. Satudri
  3. Bils
  4. Kayals


Which of the following is true about Himalyas?

  1. they are very stable
  2. their southern slopes show steep gradient as compared to their northern sides.
  3. their extension into Myanmar is called Purvanchal.
  4. the series as a whole is convex towards south and concave towards north.
  1. only 2 and 4
  2. only 4
  3. only 2, 3 and 4
  4. all of them

only 2 and 4

The zone presently occupied by Himalyas was formerly occupied by?

  1. Tethys sea
  2. Pontus sea
  3. Posiedon ocean
  4. Pharusian ocean

Tethys sea

The elevation of Himalyan chain, on going from west to east, changes as?

  1. remains constant
  2. more or less increases
  3. more or less decreases
  4. they suddenly disappear

more or less decreases

The total length of Himalayan chain is about?

  1. 3000km
  2. 2500km
  3. 4500km
  4. 5000km


The Himalayas extend between _____ valley in the west and ______ valley in the east.

  1. Indus valley, Ganga valley
  2. Brahamputra valley , Indus valley
  3. Indus valley, Brahamputra valley
  4. Indus valley, Narmada valley

Indus valley, Brahamputra valley

Which mountain range acts as a northern boundary of India?

  1. Arravalis
  2. western Ghats
  3. Garo and Khasi
  4. Himalyas


Himalyas are mainly comprised of ?

  1. Sedimentary rocks
  2. metamorphic rocks
  3. Igneous rocks
  4. Coal rocks

Sedimentary rocks

The Himalayas are believed to have been formed in ?

  1. Quaternary era
  2. Tertiary era
  3. Mesozoic era
  4. Paleozoic era

Tertiary era

Tethys sea was a geosyncline between?

  1. Gondawana land and Eurassian land
  2. Angaraland and Eurassian land
  3. Angaraland and Gondwana land
  4. none

Angaraland and Gondwana land

According to the theory of plate tectonics, Himalyas were formed by?

  1. inter continental folding
  2. intra plate folding.
  3. inter plate folding
  4. faulting.

intra plate folding.

The mountainous region to the west of the Indus valley is called?

  1. Trans Himalyas
  2. Purvanchal
  3. Greater Himalyas
  4. Poorvadri

Trans Himalyas

The hilly region to the east of the Brahamaputra valley is called?

  1. Trans Himalyas
  2. purvanchal
  3. Himadri
  4. Sahyadris


The greater Himalayas are also known as ?

  1. Himachal
  2. Siwaliks
  3. sahyadri
  4. Himadri


The “Central Himalayas” refer to?

  1. Greater Himalyas
  2. lesser Himalyas
  3. Siwaliks
  4. Trans Himalyas

Greater Himalyas

In which of the following range does the Mount Everest lie?

  1. Greater Himalyas
  2. Himachal
  3. Siwaliks
  4. Purvanchal

Greater Himalyas

Kanchenjunga lies in which of the following mountain ranges?

  1. Siwaliks
  2. Himachal
  3. Himadri
  4. TransHimalyas


Which of the following is true about The lesser Himalyas?

  1. they lie in the north of the greater himalyas.
  2. the range is broader and lower than greater himalyas.
  3. they are also called Siwaliks.
  1. all of them
  2. only 2 and 3
  3. only 2
  4. only 1 and 2.

only 2

The zone of separation between Himadri and the lesser Himalyas is called?

  1. main boundary thrust
  2. indus tsangpo suture zone
  3. Himalyan frontal fault
  4. main central thrust zone

main central thrust zone

Pir Panjal and Mahabharata ranges lie in?

  1. Siwaliks
  2. Trans Himalyas
  3. Greater Himalyas
  4. the lesser Himalyas

the lesser Himalyas

The Outer Himalyas refer to?

  1. Siwaliks
  2. himadri
  3. Himachal
  4. Purvanchal


The zone that separates Siwaliks from the lesser Himalyas is?

  1. main central thrust zone
  2. main boundary thrust
  3. Indus Tsangpo suture
  4. Himalyan Frontal fault

main boundary thrust

On the immediate South of the Siwaliks, we find?

  1. Himadris
  2. Peninsular plateau
  3. Coastal plains
  4. northern alluvial plains

northern alluvial plains

Which is the youngest range among the following?

  1. Himadri
  2. The lesser Himalyas
  3. The Siwaliks
  4. Trans Himalyas

The Siwaliks

Which of the following acts as a water shed between the rivers flowing eastward and westward?

  1. Greater Himalyas
  2. Trans Himalyas
  3. Siwaliks
  4. purvanchal

Trans Himalyas

Karokaram range is a part of?

  1. Greater Himalyas
  2. the lesser himalyas
  3. Siwaliks
  4. Trans Himalyas

Trans Himalyas

Starting from west, what is the correct order of these Himalayan mountain peaks.

  1. Nanga parbat, kanchenjunga, Nanda devi, Namcha Barwa
  2. Kamet, Nanga parbat, mount K2, Namcha barwa.
  3. Nanga parbat, mount K2, Kanchenjunga, Namcha Barwa
  4. Nanda devi, Nanga parbat, mount K2, Namcha Barwa.

Nanga parbat, mount K2, Kanchenjunga, Namcha Barwa. The correct sequence of Himalyan mountain peaks as we go from west to east is 1.)Nanga Parbat. 2.)Godwin Austin.(K2) 3.)Nanda Devi. 4.)Annapuma. 5.)Dhaulagiri. 6.)Gauri Shankar. 7.)Mount Everest. 8.)Makalu. 9.)Kanchenjunga. 10.)Namcha Barwa.

Which of the following is the correct order of Himalayan mountain ranges from North to South?

  1. Karokaram, Ladakh, Zaskar, Pirpanjal, Siwalik
  2. Ladakh, Zaskar, Pirpanjal, Karokaram, Siwalik
  3. Pirpanjal, Zaskar, Karokaram, Ladakh, Siwalik
  4. Siwalik, Zaskar, Pirpanjal, Karokaram, Ladakh

Karokaram, Ladakh, Zaskar, Pirpanjal, Siwalik

Nanda Devi is situated in:

  1. Himachal Pradesh
  2. Uttrakhand
  3. Nepal
  4. Sikkim


These were some important MCQs on Himalayas. We are sure that you will find these questions very useful and hope that you will share them with your friends.

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