This section deals with the geography of Jammu and Kashmir. At the end, you will get JK Geography MCQs, which will help you a lot in your preparation for various competitive exams like JKSSB, JKPSC, UPSC, NDA,CDS, IAS etc.
Jammu and Kashmir
The Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir is the second Northernmost Union territory of India. It lies in the Himalayan mountains. It consists of Valleys, hills, Uplands and plains.
Location Of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir lied between 32°17′ N and 36°58′ N latitudes and 73°26′ E and 80°30′ E longitudes. The state,earlier had an area of 222236 sq km (in 1947).
After its reorganization in 2019, the area of the JK Union territory has shrunk to less than one fourth of the above area. Its area now is 42241 square kilometer. The Jammu division has an area of 26293 sq.km where as the Kashmir division has an area of 15948 sq.km.
Boundaries of Jammu and Kashmir
The UT of Jammu and Kashmir shares its borders with Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab in the South, Pakistan in the West. The Jammu and Kashmir Union territory does not share its border with Afghanistan in the North, and with China in the North-East, as was the case earlier. Now, in the north-east of Jammu and Kashmir UT, there lies the Ladakh UT.
The Line of Control (LoC) separates it from Pakistani administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Balistan in the West and North-West respectively.
The southern most district of Jammu and Kashmir UT is Kathua.
The Northern most district of Jammu and Kashmir UT is Kupwara.
The Eastern most district of Jammu and Jashmir UT is Kishtwar.
The Western most district if Jammu and Kashmir UT is Kupwara.
The Standard time in Jammu and Kashmir UT is five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich time (GMT+5:30 hrs).
Physiography Of Jammu Kashmir
The Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir and the Union Territory of Ladakh have been divided into following six physical divisions:
I. The Outer Plains.
II. The Shiwaliks.
III. The Middle Himalayas.
IV. The Valley of Kashmir
V. The Greater Himalayas.
VI. The Ladakh Region.
1. The Outer Plains
The Outer Plains are part of the Northern Plains of India and they were formed by the eroded material brought down by the rivers like Chenab, Ravi, Ujh, Basantar etc.
These plains stretch from River Ravi to the River Chenab for a distance of 110 km, with an elevation of 330m to 360m above mean sea level; covering parts of Jammu region like Akhnoor, Ranbir Singh Pura, Samba and Kathua.
These plains are highly fertile and are known for the cultivation of rice and wheat.
They are locally known as “Anderwah” or “Bajwat”. They are traversed by seasonal hill torrents called “Khad”.
2. The Shiwaliks
Towards north of the Outer Plains lies the youngest mountains of the sub-continent called Shiwalik Hills.
They are also known as foothills of Himalays and are made up of younger tertiary rocks.
These mountains are 20-50 kms wide and 600-1220 meters above the mean sea level.
Jammu- the City of Temples and the two famous lakes Mansar and Surinsar lie in the vicinity of these mountains. The rolling slopes between Ravi and Chenab Rivers are called Kandi.
3. The Middle Himalayas
They are also known as Lesser Himalays.
The Middle Himalayas are located between River Ravi in the East and Poonch in the West. It comprises of two important ranges namely Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges. These ranges are known as “pahar” in Jammu region.
The range houses Trikuta mountain, in which the world famous Vaishno Devi cave is situated.The elevation of this physiographic division is between 1820 to 3600 meters above mean sea level with width of about 10 to 60 kms across.
They are covered by forests of Deodar, Pine and Fir. Jammu-Srinagar National Highway passes through these mountains at Patnitop. Some of the important towns of this region are Banihal, Ramban, Kishtwar, Doda, Batote and Rajouri.
4. The Valley of Kashmir
The deep asymmetrical bowl-shaped Valley of Kashmir situated in the north-western part of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir is situated between Pir-Panjal and Great Himalays.
The valley is around 130 Kms long and 40 Kms wide. River Jhelum is the main river of the valley.
This region contains extensive elevated plateaus locally known as Karewas. They are of alluvial and lacustrine (lake deposits) deposits.
Within the Valley of Kashmir, there are some important side valleys like Lidder Valley, Sind Valley and Lolab Valley.
Politically, it is divided into 10 districts. They are Anantnag, Baramulla, Budgam, Srinagar, Pulwama, Kupwara, Bandipora, Ganderbal, Kulgam and Shopian.
5. The Greater Himalayas
The Greater Himalayas lie to the north of the Pir panjal and Dhauladhar ranges. They form the northern flank of the valley with an average elevation of 4500 to 6000 meters above mean sea level.
Nanga Parbat is the highest mountain peak of this region in Greater Himalayas. Zojila and Razdan Pass are the important passes connecting valley with Ladakh and Gurez respectively.The famous Amarnath cave is also situated in this range.
The Greater Himalayas prevent the cold winds of Central Asia from entering the India.
6. The Ladakh Region
The Ladakh region is the cold desert having very low rainfall (less than 25 cm per annum) and scanty vegetation.
River Indus is the main river of this region. Leh town is situated in its vicinity at about 3500 meters above mean sea level.
Summers are short and warm, winters are long and extremely cold.The coldest place Drass, where the temperature during the winters falls below-400C is located in this region. Sindh valley, Drass, Kargil, Zanskar region, Nubra valley and Chanthang region are important divisions of Ladakh plateau.
Famous Mountains In Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is a mountainous state and mountains have a great importnace for the state. Some of the famous mountains are discussed below:
This mountain is located in Ganderbal district of Jammu Kashmir UT and has an elevation of 5186m. It is famous for Amarnath cave, where god is worshipped in a lingashaped ice block. This cave is visited by pilgrims on the full moon day of the month of Sawan (july-August), every year.
It is situated in the south of Zojila pass and west of Machoi glacier. It can be reached either through Pahalgam route or Sonamarg route (Baltal). The Sonamarg route is shorter than the Pahalgam route by 20km.
The melt water flowing down this mountain on Sonamarg side forms Sind river.
The mountain houses Lidder valley, where Gwasharan is located towards pahalgam. This mountain houses Kolhai Glacier and Sheeshnag Peak. Sheeshnag peak is named so, as its head resembles the heads of seven big snakes. On the foothills of Sheshnag peak, there is a Sheshnag lake.
This mountain spreads across the Gulmarg valley. This mountain houses Alpathar spring, from which Nullah Nagal flows down to join Wular lake.
This mountain separates Kashmir from Ladakh and it can be crossed through Burzil pass, which is an ancient and caravan route in Pakistan. This pass connects Srinagar with Gilgit.
4. Nanga Parbat
The Nanga Parbat (8126 m) is an important range which is in The Zaskar Range. This mountain lies in Gilgit. It is locally known as Diamir which means “king of mountains” or “huge mountain”. It has also earned a nickname of “Killer Mountain”
It is the westernmost peak of Himalayas.
5. Harmukh Mountain
It is situated in Ganderbal district of Jammu Kashmir and has an altitude of 5142m above the sea level. It has Nallah Sind on its southern side and Neelum river on its northern side.
It is a sacred place for hindus, and is considered to be the abode of Lord Shiva. It is famously known as “Kailash of kashmir“. Lake Gangabal is located on its foothills.
The water from the lake Gangabal outflows to a nearby Nundkol Lake and then ultimately to Sind River via Wangath Nallah.
This mountain can be climbed from Ganderbal via Naranag, and from Sonamarg via Vishansar Lake and 3 mountain passes named Nichnai pass, Gadsar Pass and Zajibal pass.
6. Nun Kun Mountain
NunKun mountain pear is situated between Ladakh and Kashmir border and has an altitude of 7135 m above the sea level. This pair is in Kargil District.
It is comprised of two peaks Nun (7135m) and Kun (7077m) . The Nun mountain is the highest peak in the Himalayan range on the Indian side of the Line of Control in JK.
The Nun mountain was first climbed in 1953 by a team led by Bernard Pierre and Pierre Vittoz.
7. Tosmaidan and Kazinag
These two mountains are a part of inner Himalayas.
Tosmaidan is located in Budgam district of Jammu Kashmir. Tosamaidan route connected Kashmir valley with Poonch and Rajouri through Tosamaidan pass, also known as Chinamarg Gali. Mahmoud Ghaznavi and Ranjit Singh tried to invade Kashmir through this Tosamaidan route.
Tosamaidan moutain overlooks a vast and lush green meadow, which was leased to Indian army in 1964 for a period of 50 years. It is now a tourist destination.
Kazinag mountain extends in twin districts of Baramulla and Kupwara. Its elevation is 4574m above the sea level. It forms part of LOC between India and Pakistan and is a part of Kazinag national park.
8. Volcanic Mountains
There are two volcanic mountain peaks in Jammu and Kasmir. One is Soyamji in Handwara and another is Kharewa in Pahalgam.
The Soyamji peak erupted in 1934 for 13 months and is now in a dormant stage. The volcanic mountain of Pahalgam is dead now.
4. Climate Of Jammu Kashmir, And Ladakh
The climate of the Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir and the Union Territory of Ladakh varies considerably with its topography. The Southern parts of Jammu reflect a humid Sub-tropical (Monsoon type) climate. June is the hottest month with a temperature ranging upto 45 degree centigrade. Hot and dry winds locally known as ‘Loo’ blow in the afternoon during summer. January is the coldest month in the plains of Jammu with temperature ranging between 5-100C.
The Valley of Kashmir along with some hilly areas of Jammu experience modified temperate type of climate. July is the hottest month and January is the coldest month which is locally known as period of ‘Chille-Kalan’ and temperature during this period can dip down to -10 to -200C (40 days of intense cold from 21 December to 31 January).
Ladakh experiences a very dry climate. Cold desert conditions prevail in this region. Ladakh receives a very little amount of precipitation throughout the year. Precipitation is mainly in the form of snowfall. January is the coldest month in Ladakh, Here the lowest temperature goes deep below freezing point up to -40oC at Drass.
Languages Spoken In Jammu Kashmir, And Ladakh
Prominent languages spoken in these Union Territories are Kashmiri, Urdu, Dogri, Punjabi, Pahari, Bhoti, Balti, Gojri, Shina, Siraji, Dardi, Pashto etc.
Famous Places in Jammu Kashmir and Their Nick Names
|Srinagar||City of lakes|
|Srinagar||Venice of East|
|Srinagar||Nucleus of Kashmir|
|Pari Mahal||Abode of Fairies|
|Jammu||City of temples|
|Jammu Hills||Siwaliks of Jammu Region|
|Lolab||The fruit bowl of Jammu and Kashmir|
|Kulgam||Rice Bowl of Kashmir|
|Gulmarg||Meadow of flowers|
|Sonamarg||Meadow of snow|
|Pahalgam||village of Shepherds|
|Kashmir||Switzerland of East|
|Shopian||Home of Ambri|
|Pulwama||Anand of Kashmir. Anand is a place in Gujrat where Amul is located.|
|Budgam||Land of Springs|
|Kishtwar||Land of Sapphire and Saffron|
|Dal Lake||Lake Par Excellence. Jewel In the crown of Kashmir.|
|Manasbal Lake||Supreme Gem Of All Kashmiri Lakes|
|Shopian||Apple bowl of Kashmir|
|Ookhu||Pencil Village of India|
Largest and Smallest District in Jammu and Kashmir
There are 20 districts in Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory. Ten of them are in Jammu divison and ten in Kashmir division. The largest district in Jammu Kashmir UT is Kishtwar with an area of 7737 sq.km. The smallest district in Jammu and Kashmir Union Territory is Shopian with an area of 312 sq.km.
Districts of Jammu Kashmir With Maximum And Minimum Population
The population of Jammu and Kashmir is 12267013 (census 2011) and its population density is 290/km2. The district that has the maximum population in Jammu Kashmir is Jammu district and the district with the least population is Kishtwar.
|By Population||District||population (2011)|
Districts of Jammu Kashmir With Highest And Lowest Literacy Rate
|By Literacy||District||Literacy Rate|
Districts of Jammu Kashmir With Highest And Lowest Sex Ratio
|By sex ratio||District||Sex Ratio|
|Highest Sex Ratio||Shopian||951:1000|
|Lowest Sex Ratio||Kupwara||835:1000|
MCQs On Geography Of Jammu Kashmir
In the following section, you will get some top MCQs on geography of Jammu Kashmir. Solve them now.
Jammu hills or Outer Hills of Jammu are a part of:
- Zaskar Range
- Pir Panjal Range
- Dhauladhar Range
Which river is also known as Hydaspes?
Which of the following crops covers maximum area in J&K?
Which among the following is not correct?
- Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Tunnel is in Jammu and Kashmir
- Chattergala Tunnel will connect Sonamarg and Zojila
- Both of them
- None of them
Chattergala Tunnel will connect Sonamarg with Zojilla
Which one is not true?
- The outer plains of Jammu are locally known as Bajwat
- The hill torrents that traverse the outer plains of jammu are locally known as Rodh.
- Wullar Lake is a Ramsar Site.
- Jehlum river is also known as Hydaspes river
The hill torrents that traverse the outer plains of Jammu are locally known as Rodh
Kishtwar was carved out of which district of Jammu Kashmir? (JKSSB 2022)
Doda. Kishtwar was carved out as a district from Doda district and started functioning as an independent administrative unit in the year 2007
Which lake is known as the Jewel in the crown of Kashmir?
- Mansar lake
- Nigeen lake
- Gangabal Lake
- Dal Lake
Which one among the following is not true?
- Jammu region has more forest cover than Kashmir region
- Jammu has less percentage of its area under forests than the Kashmir region
- Maximum forests in JK are of coniferous type
- As per ISFR 2019, Jk has seen a decrease in forest cover since reports of 2017
As per ISFR 2019, JK has seen a decrease in forest cover since report of 2017
Which of the following rivers meets Indus directly?
What is the local name of Saffron? (JKSSB 2022)
What is the depth of Indus Gorge?
The name of Asis’s largest tulip garden is:
- Jawahar Lal Nehru Botanical Garden
- Harwan Garden
- Sheri Kashmir Park
- Indhra Gandhi Memorial Garden
Indhra Gandhi Memorial Garden
Which of the following activities in Indian agriculture is known as “Golden Zest”?
- Saffron cultivation
- Maize cultivation
- Wheat cultivation
- Cherry cultivation
Gucci is a:
- handicraft bag
- a high quality rug
A tourist place, once given on lease to Indian army in 1964 for 50 years. Mehmoud Ghazni attempted to invade Kashmir through it. Which place are we talking about?
- Mughal Sarai
- Tos Maidan
Who said that Poonch is famous for tea and horses?
- Huien Tsang
- Walter Lawrence
Huien Tsang. In the 6th Century A.D. Chinese traveller Huien Tsang passed through Poonch. He wrote that Poonch was famous for graphics, fine tea (Musloom) and good horses
Chenani Nashri Tunnel is also known as:
- New Katra Tunnel
- Panthal Tunnel
- Pir Panjal tunnel
- Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Tunnel
Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Tunnel
Which of the following places has the distinction of being Asia’s only Heli-Skiing Resort?
Which village in Jammu Kashmir is called Pencil village of India?
Ookhu, a village in Pulwama district of JK, is known as the pencil village of India
FAQs about Jammu Kashmir
The most populous district of Jammu and Kashmir is Jammu.
The largest district of Jammu and Kashmir Union territory is Kishtwar.
The smallest district of Jammu and Kashmir is Shopian.
The northern most union territory of India is Ladakh.
The district that has the highest literacy rate in Jammu Kashmir is Jammu and its literacy rate is 83.5%.
The district that has the lowest literacy rate in Jammu Kashmir is Ramban and its literacy rate is 54.27%.
The district that has the highest sex ratio in Jammu Kashmir UT is Shopian. It has 951 females for every 1000 males.
The district that has the lowest sex ratio in Jammu Kashmir UT is Kupwara. It has 835 females for every 1000 males.
Ookhu, a village in Pulwama district of Jammu Kashmir is called the Pencil Village of India. It supplies almost 2/3 of raw materials for pencil production in India.
So, this was all about the Geography of Jammu Kashmir. Kindly share it with your friends.
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